- Ca. 1810 - 1815
- 150 x 216 mm
- Técnica y soporte
- Etching and burin
- Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
- Undisputed work
- Ficha: realización/revisión
- 28 Nov 2010 / 24 May 2023
Goya (in reverse, lower right-hand corner).
(1)9 (lower left-hand corner).
The second state proof for this print features some retouching in burin on the heads and in the foreground.
The title was handwritten by Goya on the first and only print run that we know to have been made at the time, and which the painter gave to his friend Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. The title was engraved on to the copperplate at a later date, and no other modifications were made to the image for the first edition of the Disasters of War, which was printed by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, Madrid, in 1863.
No preparatory drawings for this print have been conserved.
In this print Goya has captured the moment when several French soldiers are attacking and attempting to rape a group of women. The different bodies twist and tangle together, creating a shapeless mass in which it is difficult to distinguish individual figures.
The Aragonese artist has situated the scene in an outdoor setting, at night. Both the background and the clothes of the male figures have been built up using parallel etched lines packed very closely together. The women, on the other hand, are dressed in white, perhaps in allusion to their innocence. In the foreground the artist has placed a female figure who is being violently seized by a soldier. Forced into an unnatural, contorted position, she lets out a cry of pain.
Not in this case either can be related to those prints in this same series that deal with violence committed upon women during wartime and, more specifically, to the previous print, no. 9, They do not want to and to the one that follows, no. 11, Or these. In these three images, Goya seems to have constructed a sense of continuity, further emphasized by the works' titles.
The etching plate is conserved in the National Chalcography Museum (cat. 261)
Francisco de GoyaMuseo d'Arte ModernaLugano1996exhibition celebrated from September 22nd to November 17th.cat. 10
Francisco Goya. Sein leben im spiegel der graphik. Fuendetodos 1746-1828 Bordeaux. 1746-1996Galerie KornfeldBern1996from November 21st 1996 to January 1997cat. 98
Francisco Goya. Capricci, follie e disastri della guerraSan Donato Milanese2000Opere grafiche della Fondazione Antonio Mazzottacat. 90
Goya. La imagen de la mujerMuseo Nacional del PradoMadrid2001from October 30th 2001 to February 10th 2002. Exhibitied also at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, March 10th to June 2nd 2002, consultant editor Francisco Calvo Serrallercat. 108
Goya. Opera graficaPinacoteca del Castello di San GiorgioLegnano2006exhibition celebrated from December 16th 2006 to April 1st 2007p. 56
Goya et la modernitéPinacothèque de ParisParís2013from October 11st 2013 to March 16th 201449
Goya: Order and disorderMuseum of Fine ArtsBoston2014
Goya, grabadorBibliography']['numberMadridBlass S.A.1918cat. 112
Goya engravings and lithographs, vol. I y II.Bibliography']['numberOxfordBruno Cassirer1964cat. 130
Vie et ouvre de Francisco de GoyaBibliography']['numberParísOffice du livre1970cat. 1006
Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca NacionalBibliography']['numberMadridMinisterio de Educación y Cultura, Biblioteca Nacional1996cat. 197
Goya. Los desastres de la guerra, lBibliography']['numberBarcelonaLa Central2011p. 24
ParísPinacoteca de París2013p. 124
Goya. In the Norton Simon MuseumBibliography']['numberPasadenaNorton Simon Museum2016pp. 114-151
Museo de Bellas Artes de Badajoz y Diputación de Badajoz2022p. 57