- Ca. 1810 - 1812
- 143 x 169 mm
- Técnica y soporte
- Etching, aquatint, burin, drypoint and burnisher
- Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
- Undisputed work
- Ficha: realización/revisión
- 29 Nov 2010 / 14 Apr 2021
Goya (lower left-hand corner), 20 (lower left-hand corner of plate)
There exist two state proofs for this etching. The first features some drypoint on the sword belonging to the man reclining on the left-hand side and some retouching with burin below the woman's right breast. In the second proof the lavis work has been added.
The title was handwritten by Goya on the first and only print run that we know to have been made at the time, and which the painter gave to his friend Agustín Ceán Bermúdez. The title was engraved on to the copperplate at a later date, and no other modifications were made to the image for the first edition of the Disasters of War, which was printed by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, Madrid, in 1863.
There is a preparatory drawing in the Prado Museum.
In an interior space featuring two archways through which the light enters, a handcuffed man is leaning against a wall, his back to the viewer. He is about to bear witness to a brutal rape. Two soldiers have hold of a woman, perhaps the wife of the handcuffed man, by the arms. She is looking up at one of her attackers, pleading for mercy. At the same time, another soldier is raping a second woman in the background.
The place is which these actions are taking place bears some similarities to the space depicted by Goya in etching no. 11, Or these. This would be somewhere out of the way, where nobody is likely to come to the aid of the prisoners, somewhere that, far from sheltering them, becomes their prison.
Bitter presence is a heavy, particularly dark image. The light that is flooding in through the two archways falls mainly on the clothes of the woman in the foreground and on the shirt worn by the man who is being forced to witness the unfolding events. The soldiers either have their backs to us or their faces are either downturned or simply dimly lit, so that we cannot identify them, just as occurs in many other etchings in the series.
This etching can be related to those other prints in the Disasters of War series in which women play an important role, often as victims of different types of violence: no. 3, The women give courage, nº 7, What courage!, nº 9, They do not want to, nº 11, Or these, nº 19, There is no more time and no. 31, That's tough.
The etching plate is conserved in the National Chalcography Museum (cat. 264).
The copperplate for this etching used half of the plate from Landscape with Cliff, Buildings and Trees.
De grafiek van GoyaRijksmuseum RijksprentenkabinetAmsterdam1970from November 13th 1970 to January 17th 1971cat. 62
Francisco de GoyaMuseo d'Arte ModernaLugano1996exhibition celebrated from September 22nd to November 17th.cat. 13
Francisco Goya. Sein leben im spiegel der graphik. Fuendetodos 1746-1828 Bordeaux. 1746-1996Galerie KornfeldBern1996from November 21st 1996 to January 1997cat. 101
Francisco Goya. Capricci, follie e disastri della guerraSan Donato Milanese2000Opere grafiche della Fondazione Antonio Mazzottacat. 93
Goya. Opera graficaPinacoteca del Castello di San GiorgioLegnano2006exhibition celebrated from December 16th 2006 to April 1st 2007p. 57
Goya et la modernitéPinacothèque de ParisParís2013from October 11st 2013 to March 16th 2014cat.52
Goya, grabadorMadridBlass S.A.1918cat. 115
Goya engravings and lithographs, vol. I y II.Bruno Cassirer1964cat. 133
Vie et ouvre de Francisco de GoyaParísOffice du livre1970cat. 1011
Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca NacionalMadridMinisterio de Educación y Cultura, Biblioteca Nacional1996cat. 203