Francisco de Goya

Datos Generales
Cronología
Ca. 1797 - 1798
Dimensiones
219 x 153 mm
Técnica y soporte
Etching and burnished aquatint
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Undisputed work
Ficha: realización/revisión
23 Nov 2010 / 06 Jun 2023
Inventario
225
Inscripciones

They are hot (at the bottom) 

3. (in the upper right corner)

Historia

See Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Painter.

Se conoce la existencia de cuatro pruebas de estado antes de que Goya trabajase con el bruñidor el aguatinta de las cuales dos tienen el título manuscrito. La primera de ellas se encuentra en la Bibliothèque Nationale de France en París y presenta una descuidada caligrafía, mientras que la del Metropolitan Museum of Art de Nueva York ha sido realizada con mayor esmero para que el grabador siguiese la letra.

Han de considerarse dibujos preparatorios para este grabado el que forma parte del Álbum de Madrid, así como el Sueño nº 25, Sueño de unos hombres q.e se nos comían y el dibujo titulado Están calientes, conservado en el Museo Nacional del Prado.

Análisis artístico

In a dark setting in which we can make out an arch in the background, we can see four figures dressed in tunics that indicate that they belong to a religious sphere. Three of them are seated at a table, two facing the front and the third in profile. In the background we can make out the fourth, who is holding a tray. The faces of all of them are caricatured, almost deformed, their mouths enormous and, in some cases, open. The light illuminates the figure seated in profile on the left, his face cadaverous and disturbing, the hand holding a spoon in his mouth and the plate on the table.

Ayala's manuscript explains this engraving by saying "the stupid friars binge, there at their hours, in the refectories, laughing, and they laugh at the world; what should they do but be horny! The manuscript in the Prado Museum notes that "they are in such a hurry to gulp that they swallow them boiling hot. Even in the use of pleasures, temperance and moderation are necessary". Finally, the manuscript in the National Library comments on this engraving that "the foolish friars binge well in their refectories, and laugh at the world; what are they to do afterwards if they are not horny".

There is no doubt that Goya makes a merciless criticism of the clergy who, at times, beyond their vows and their promise to lead an austere and simple life, give in to earthly pleasures. One could even extend the hunger of these friars to their sexual appetite, so that the title of the engraving acquires a double meaning. This hypothesis becomes more plausible if we look closely at the drawing in the Madrid Album or Album B, Joyful Charitature, in which one of the friars has an inordinately large, phallic-shaped nose; its size is such that he must hold it with a small crutch.

Conservación

The plate is preserved in the National Chalcography (no. 184).

Exposiciones
  • Goya. Gemälde Zeichnungen. Graphik. Tapisserien
    Kunsthalle Basel
    Basle
    1953
    from January 23th to April 12th 1953
  • Goya dans les collections suisses
    Fundación Pierre Gianadda
    Martigny
    1982
    consultant editor Pierre Gassier. From June 12th to August 29th 1982
  • Goya. La década de Los Caprichos
    Madrid
    1992
    organized by Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando sponsored by Fundación Central Hispano, Madrid, consultant editor Nigel Glendinnig. From October 26th 1992 to January 10th 1993
  • Francisco de Goya
    Museo d'Arte Moderna
    Lugano
    1996
    exhibition celebrated from September 22nd to November 17th.
  • Francisco Goya. Sein leben im spiegel der graphik. Fuendetodos 1746-1828 Bordeaux. 1746-1996
    Galerie Kornfeld
    Bern
    1996
    from November 21st 1996 to January 1997
  • Goya artista de su tiempo y Goya artista único
    The National Museum of Western Art
    Tokyo
    1999
    from December 1st to July 3th 1999
  • Francisco Goya. Capricci, follie e disastri della guerra
    San Donato Milanese
    2000
    Opere grafiche della Fondazione Antonio Mazzotta
  • Goya e la tradizione italiana
    Fondazione Magnani Rocca
    Mamiano di Traversetolo (Parma)
    2006
    consultant editors Fred Licht and Simona Tosini Pizzetti. From September 9th to December 3th 2006
  • Goya. Opera grafica
    Pinacoteca del Castello di San Giorgio
    Legnano
    2006
    exhibition celebrated from December 16th 2006 to April 1st 2007
  • Goya e Italia
    Museo de Zaragoza
    Zaragoza
    2008
    organized by the Fundación Goya en Aragóna, consultant editor Joan Sureda Pons. From June 1st to September 15th 2008
  • Goya luces y sombras
    CaixaForum
    Barcelona
    2012
    consultant editors José Manuel Matilla and Manuela B. Marqués. From March 16th to June 24th 2012
  • Goya et la modernité
    Pinacothèque de Paris
    París
    2013
    from October 11st 2013 to March 16th 2014
  • Goya: Order and disorder
    Museum of Fine Arts
    Boston
    2014
  • Hamburg
    2019
Bibliografía
  • HARRIS, Tomás
    Goya engravings and lithographs, vol. I y II.
    OxfordBruno Cassirer
    1964
    p.81, cat. 46
  • GASSIER, Pierre y WILSON, Juliet
    Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    ParísOffice du livre
    1970
    p.177, cat. 476
  • WILSON BAREAU, Juliet
    Goya, la década de los caprichos: dibujos y aguafuertes
    MadridReal Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
    1992
    pp.248-253, cat. 148-152
  • SANTIAGO, Elena M. (coordinadora)
    Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    MadridMinisterio de Educación y Cultura, Biblioteca Nacional
    1996
    p.80, cat. 101
  • BLAS BENITO, Javier, MATILLA RODRÍGUEZ, José Manuel y MEDRANO, José Miguel
    El libro de los caprichos: dos siglos de interpretaciones (1799-1999). Catálogo de los dibujos, pruebas de estado, láminas de cobre y estampas de la primera edición
    MadridMuseo Nacional del Prado
    1999
    pp.110-115
  • LÓPEZ VÁZQUEZ, José Manuel
    Bellacos, lisonjeros y amigos de mesa defraudadores de la verdad. Caprichos 11, 12 y 13,
    Boletín de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando92-93
    MadridReal Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
    2001
    pp.45-65
  • OROPESA, Marisa and RINCÓN GARCÍA, Wilfredo
    ParísPinacoteca de París
    2013
    p. 63
  • ILCHMAN, Frederick y STEPANEK, Stephanie L. (comisarios)
    Goya: Order & Disorder
    BostonMuseum of Fine Arts Boston Publications
    2014
    pp. 242-244
  • WILSON BAREAU, Juliet
    Goya. In the Norton Simon Museum
    PasadenaNorton Simon Museum
    2016
    pp. 42-75
  • TACK, Ifee and PISOT, Sandra
    HamburgHirmer
    2019
    p. 290
Enlaces externos
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