Francisco de Goya

Neither more nor less

Clasificación
Neither more nor less
Datos Generales
Cronología
Ca. 1797 - 1798
Dimensiones
200 x 152 mm
Técnica y soporte
Aguafuerte, aguatinta bruñida, punta seca y buril
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Undisputed work
Ficha: realización/revisión
14 Dec 2010 / 21 Jun 2023
Inventario
225
Inscripciones

Ni mas ni menos. (at the bottom)

41. (in the upper right-hand corner)

Historia

See Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, Painter.

There is known evidence of pre-lettered condition with touches of graphite on the front hooves of the donkey. On the upper part of the print there is an inscription that reads El Asno ("The Donkey"), although it has been partially erased so that it is barely legible.

A preparatory drawing for this engraving is in the Prado Museum.

Análisis artístico

Seated on a bucket, a monkey acts as a painter, holding a brush in his hand and a palette in the other. He is portraying an ass posing before him, although the ape depicts him in a different way, dressed in a golilla as if he were a magistrate.

Goya uses aquatint throughout the composition except for the donkey's head and the ape's palette. The drypoint is clearly visible on the donkey's nose and the burin on the monkey's back. The painter has left the donkey's head lighter than the rest to emphasise that the monkey's portrait of him does not coincide with the true image of the animal.

In this engraving there is a difference with respect to the drawing that implies some different nuances in the interpretation of the two works. The fact that he is sitting on a bucket on which we can read " Do not die of hunger" leads us to think that in the drawing the object of the mockery is the monkey, while in the engraving the satire is directed at the donkey. This mockery of the donkey is very well explained in the manuscripts on the Caprices series of which we are aware, especially the one in the National Library, which states the following: "An animal that is portrayed will not cease to appear to be an animal for that reason, even if it is painted with its gourd and affected gravity".

The monopainter represents his clients as they wish; thus the donkey tries, in the portrait painted by the false painter, to appear to be what he is not. He has therefore asked him to hide his donkey's ears under a wig, although he does not succeed in erasing his own nature.

Edith Helman believes that this Caprice should be related to the fable of The Painter in Fables in Castilian Verse by José Agustín Ibáñez de la Rentería (Bilbao, 1751-Lequeitio, 1826). In this text the writer narrates how a painter must accommodate himself to the tastes of his clientele in order not to starve to death, as the inscription on Goya's preparatory drawing reads.

Some specialists have seen in this image a satire of Manuel Godoy (Badajoz, 1767-Paris, 1851), who was portrayed by Antonio Carnicero (Salamanca, 1748-Madrid, 1814) according to his demands.

It is possible that one of the visual sources to which Goya may have had recourse for the engraving we are dealing with here is the painting by David Teniers entitled The Monkey Painter (1650, Prado Museum, Madrid) or perhaps he may have been familiar with the painting of the same title by Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin (Paris, 1699-Paris, 1779).

This print forms part of the series of "asnerías" that Goya produced between engravings Nos. 37 and 42 of The Caprices, in which this animal becomes the mechanism for censuring human stupidity.

Conservación

The plate is preserved in the National Chalcography (no. 212).

Exposiciones
  • Goya. Gemälde Zeichnungen. Graphik. Tapisserien
    Kunsthalle Basel
    Basle
    1953
    from January 23th to April 12th 1953
  • De grafiek van Goya
    Rijksmuseum Rijksprentenkabinet
    Amsterdam
    1970
    from November 13th 1970 to January 17th 1971
  • Goya dans les collections suisses
    Fundación Pierre Gianadda
    Martigny
    1982
    consultant editor Pierre Gassier. From June 12th to August 29th 1982
  • Goya. La década de Los Caprichos
    Madrid
    1992
    organized by Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando sponsored by Fundación Central Hispano, Madrid, consultant editor Nigel Glendinnig. From October 26th 1992 to January 10th 1993
  • Francisco de Goya
    Museo d'Arte Moderna
    Lugano
    1996
    exhibition celebrated from September 22nd to November 17th.
  • Ydioma universal: Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    Biblioteca Nacional
    Madrid
    1996
    from September 19th to December 15th 1996
  • Francisco Goya. Sein leben im spiegel der graphik. Fuendetodos 1746-1828 Bordeaux. 1746-1996
    Galerie Kornfeld
    Bern
    1996
    from November 21st 1996 to January 1997
  • Goya artista de su tiempo y Goya artista único
    The National Museum of Western Art
    Tokyo
    1999
    from December 1st to July 3th 1999
  • Goya. La imagen de la mujer
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    2001
    from October 30th 2001 to February 10th 2002. Exhibitied also at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, March 10th to June 2nd 2002, consultant editor Francisco Calvo Serraller
  • Goya e la tradizione italiana
    Fondazione Magnani Rocca
    Mamiano di Traversetolo (Parma)
    2006
    consultant editors Fred Licht and Simona Tosini Pizzetti. From September 9th to December 3th 2006
  • Goya. Opera grafica
    Pinacoteca del Castello di San Giorgio
    Legnano
    2006
    exhibition celebrated from December 16th 2006 to April 1st 2007
  • Goya et la modernité
    Pinacothèque de Paris
    París
    2013
    from October 11st 2013 to March 16th 2014
Bibliografía
  • HARRIS, Tomás
    Goya engravings and lithographs, vol. I y II.
    Bibliography']['number
    OxfordBruno Cassirer
    1964
    p.113, cat. 76
  • GASSIER, Pierre y WILSON, Juliet
    Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    Bibliography']['number
    ParísOffice du livre
    1970
    p.181, cat. 532
  • GUDIOL, José
    Goya, 1746-1828. Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas
    Bibliography']['number
    BarcelonaEdiciones Polígrafa s.a.
    1970
    p.395, fig. 636
  • WILSON BAREAU, Juliet
    Goya, la década de los caprichos: dibujos y aguafuertes
    Bibliography']['number
    MadridReal Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
    1992
    pp.225-227, cat. 134-135
  • SANTIAGO, Elena M. (coordinadora)
    Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    Bibliography']['number
    MadridMinisterio de Educación y Cultura, Biblioteca Nacional
    1996
    p.95, cat. 130
  • BLAS BENITO, Javier, MATILLA RODRÍGUEZ, José Manuel y MEDRANO, José Miguel
    El libro de los caprichos: dos siglos de interpretaciones (1799-1999). Catálogo de los dibujos, pruebas de estado, láminas de cobre y estampas de la primera edición
    Bibliography']['number
    MadridMuseo Nacional del Prado
    1999
    pp.230-233
  • TRAEGER, Jörg
    Goya. Die Kunst der Freiheit
    Bibliography']['number
    MunichVerlag C. H. Beck
    2000
    p.94, fig. 32
  • OROPESA, Marisa and RINCÓN GARCÍA, Wilfredo
    Bibliography']['number
    ParísPinacoteca de París
    2013
    p. 208
  • WILSON BAREAU, Juliet
    Goya. In the Norton Simon Museum
    Bibliography']['number
    PasadenaNorton Simon Museum
    2016
    pp. 42-75
Palabras clave
Enlaces externos
Obra relacionada
Volver
Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar su navegación. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta el uso de cookies.