Francisco de Goya

Saints Justa and Rufina (Santas Justa y Rufina)

Clasificación
Saints Justa and Rufina (Santas Justa y Rufina)
Datos Generales
Cronología
1817
Ubicación
Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain
Dimensiones
309 x 177 cm
Técnica y soporte
Oil on canvas
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Documented work
Titular
Chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Seville
Ficha: realización/revisión
01 Feb 2010 / 06 Mar 2012
Historia

The Metropolitan Chapter of Seville Cathedral commissioned this work to Goya thanks to the mediation of the scholar and friend of the artist, Ceán Bermúdez. The painting's underdrawing was already sketched out by 27 September 1817. The painting was delivered on 14 January 1818. Goya received payment of 28,000 reales for this canvas, which is still housed in the Sacristy of the Chalices of Seville Cathedral.

Análisis artístico

The period when this painting was produced was not the happiest in Goya's life. The painter was now 71 years old, and Vicente López held back many of his commissions due the conservative reaction they were met with: the Maja paintings appeared in the list of objects belonging to Godoy confiscated by the Inquisition for being "obscene". It was probably for this reason that Goya's friend Ceán intervened to get him this commission, supervising it down to the last detail, deciding what would be depicted, and even demanding three or four preparatory sketches of which one still survives (Prado Museum, Madrid).

As Ceán wrote in a letter to Tomás de Veri, a collector from Mallorca, the chapter had requested a painting of the martyrdom of the saints; however, given the size of the canvas Ceán thought that it would be better to represent the saints life-size, in decorous postures which would not distract the priest and would move the faithful to prayer.

Thus, the sisters appear standing up, carrying their traditional objects: ceramic pots denoting their profession as potters, and the lion by Saint Rufina's side which refers to the moment when the Roman prefect Diogenianus threw her to the lions. The lion in the amphitheatre became as tame as a house cat, licking the feet of the young woman. Both women towards the dark sky lit only by two rays which illuminate their heads. In the background we can see the Giralda Tower which usually appears in representations of the saints, symbolizing their native city. The painter included a pagan sculpture in pieces at their feet, referring to the occasion when the saints destroyed the image of the Syrian goddess Salambo, refusing to sell one of their vessels as an offering to the deity.

Despite Ceán's praise, the painting was not well received by the people of Seville - above all by local artists, who felt that Goya had stolen a good commission from them. As a result, a battle began between the defenders of the painting and its detractors, and both sides expressed their point of view by means of poems and couplets which spread throughout Seville. They went so far as to claim that Goya had used two prostitutes as models for the painting, a popular belief which was even propagated by academics such as Yriarte, who was convinced of Goya's scepticism.

Other Goya scholars did not value the canvas because did not correspond with his true style and force of character, apparently carried out with the sole objective of pleasing the chapter. Nevertheless, modern critics have been able to appreciate the difficulty of the commission. The canvas had to include various attributes, and Goya carried out a great deal of research to depict them adequately, visiting Seville three times. The result is a canvas which fuses black tones and bright colours in the style of El Greco. The painter doubtless based the composition on a work of the same subject by Murillo (Fine Arts Museum in Seville).

Exposiciones
  • Goya. La imagen de la mujer
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    2001
    from October 30th 2001 to February 10th 2002. Exhibitied also at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, March 10th to June 2nd 2002, consultant editor Francisco Calvo Serraller
  • Goya en tiempos de guerra
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    2008
    consultant editor Manuela B. Mena Marqués, from April 14th to July 13th 2008
Bibliografía
  • L'œuvre peint de Goya. 4 vols
    Xavier Desparmet Fitz-Gerald
    vol. I, p. 142, cat. 99
    1928-1950
  • El estudio crítico más antiguo sobre Goya
    Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia conmemorativo del bicentenario de Don Francisco de Goya
    Ángel González Palencia
    pp. 75-87
    1946
  • Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    Juliet Wilson and Pierre Gassier
    pp. 298, 378, cat. 1.569
    1970
    Office du livre
  • Goya, 1746 – 1828. Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas, 4 vols.
    José Gudiol
    vol. I, p. 367, cat. 654
    1970
    Polígrafa
  • L’opera pittorica completa di Goya
    Rita de Angelis
    p. 131, cat. 610
    1974
    Rizzoli
  • Francisco de Goya, 4 vols.
    José Camón Aznar
    vol. IV, p. 74 y pp. 290. 291 (ils.)
    1980-1982
    Caja de Ahorros de Zaragoza, Aragón y Rioja
  • Goya. 250 Aniversario
    Juan J. (comisario) Luna
    pp. 417-419
    1996
    Museo del Prado
  • Goya, la imagen de la mujer
    Francisco (comisario) Calvo Serraller
    pp. 234, 335, cat. 57 y p. 235 (il.)
    2001
    Museo Nacional del Prado y Fundación Amigos del Museo del Prado
  • Goya en tiempos de guerra
    Manuela B. (comisaria) Mena Marqués
    pp. 467-470, cat. 172 y p. 469 (il.)
    2008
    Museo Nacional del Prado
Enlaces externos
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