Francisco de Goya

Third of May 1808 (El tres de mayo de 1808)

Third of May 1808 (El tres de mayo de 1808)
Datos Generales
Cronología
1814
Ubicación
The Prado National Museum. Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Dimensiones
268 x 347 cm
Técnica y soporte
Oil on canvas
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Documented work
Titular
El Prado National Museum
Ficha: realización/revisión
17 Mar 2010 / 31 Jan 2019
Inventario
114 (P00749)
Historia

See Second of May 1808.

Análisis artístico

The executions of the insurgents depicted in this work's companion painting took place during the night following the attacks on the French troops. As Murat said to the chaplain Francisco Gállego Dávila, also an insurgent, "he who lives by the sword dies by the sword", and this is how the first episode of the War of Independence played out.

The focus of attention in the composition is the condemned men who await their imminent death. At their feet are the bodies of those who have already been killed, portrayed with startling, realist brutality. On the right we can see the row of infantry of the line soldiers who point their bayonets at the men. They are portrayed as faceless: it does not matter who kills who - it is all irrational violence. The fundamental element of this painting is the different poses which Goya has given to each of the men who confront their destiny. Fear consumes them all, but we can also detect rage in the figure with the clenched fists, anguish in the man in the white shirt with the open arms, desperation for clemency in the figure who crosses his arms, or the regret of the figure who holds his hands up to his mouth in the group of figures approaching behind the rifles.

The background of this scene is the city, outlined against the sky which is in mourning, weighing down on the figures. The light coming from the lantern, which is cast in a cube-shaped pattern (and on many occasions has been referred to as a precursor to the cubism movement), accentuates the cruelty of the scene, highlighting the blood which bathes the floor of this place somewhere in the outskirts of Madrid. It has been suggested that the location might be the so-called mountain of Príncipe Pío, but some documents from the time show that there was no door like that depicted by Goya here. It has also been posited that this might be Puerta de la Vega, where executions also took place. Nevertheless, as in the case of its companion painting, identifying the setting is not important; what matters is the tragedy seen through the eyes of those who will die before the implacable French machine.

Conservación

Has been recently restored. On the lower left-hand corner there are remains of the damages happened during its moving to Valencia in 1973, because of the Spanish civil war.

Exposiciones
  • Goya. 250 Aniversario
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    1996
    consultant editor Juan J. Luna. From March 29th to June 2nd 1996
  • Goya en tiempos de guerra
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    2008
    consultant editor Manuela B. Mena Marqués, from April 14th to July 13th 2008
Bibliografía
  • L'œuvre peint de Goya. 4 vols
    Xavier Desparmet Fitz-Gerald
    p. 254, cat. 226
    1928-1950
  • Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    Juliet Wilson and Pierre Gassier
    pp. 207, 257, 267, cat. 984
    1970
    Office du livre
  • Goya, 1746 – 1828. Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas, 4 vols.
    José Gudiol
    vol. I, p. 360, cat. 624
    1970
    Polígrafa
  • L’opera pittorica completa di Goya
    Rita de Angelis
    p. 128, cat. 566
    1974
    Rizzoli
  • Francisco de Goya, 4 vols.
    José Camón Aznar
    vol. IV, p. 22 y pp. 129, 136-137
    1980-1982
    Caja de Ahorros de Zaragoza, Aragón y Rioja
  • Goya. 250 Aniversario
    Juan J. (comisario) Luna
    p. 411, cat. 142 y pp. 242-243 (ils.)
    1996
    Museo del Prado
  • Goya en tiempos de guerra
    Manuela B. (comisaria) Mena Marqués
    p. 353, cat. 124 y pp. 355, 360, 362, 36
    2008
    Museo Nacional del Prado
Enlaces externos
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