Francisco de Goya

Fire in a Hospital (Incendio de un hospital)

Fire in a Hospital (Incendio de un hospital)
Datos Generales
Cronología
Ca. 1808 - 1812
Ubicación
Buenos Aries National Museum of Fine Arts, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Dimensiones
72 x 99 cm
Técnica y soporte
Oil on canvas
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Undisputed work
Titular
National Museum of Fine Arts, Argentina
Ficha: realización/revisión
16 May 2010 / 06 Mar 2012
Inventario
361 (6986)
Historia

This work came from the 1958 bequest made by Doctor Carlos Alberto, Arturo and Eduardo Acevedo, in memory of their brother Horacio.

Análisis artístico

Thanks to the inscription X.28 that appears on this canvas, it has been possible to identify this work and to attribute it to the artist, together with three others: Bandit Scene, Festivities underneath a Bridge and The Hurricane. These four paintings correspond to those which appear in the inventory drawn up in 1812, following the death of Josefa Bayeu, and which were labelled with the number 28: "Four paintings of other subjects, with the no. 28, [valued] at sixty reales".

In the foreground, a group of people are fleeing in terror from a flaming building. A woman who has fainted or perhaps suffocated is being carried on a stretcher by a group of men.

In thematic and formal terms, this work very closely resembles The Fire, also known as Fire at Night, which Goya painted between 1793 and 1794. In both paintings we see people running away, crashing into one another in their confusion. In the centre of both compositions, the artist has created a brightly painted area representing the fire itself and occupying much of the canvas. Both works also feature an unconscious person who is being transported by others and which we can relate to the body sprawled out over the rocks in A Shipwreck. However, in Fire in a Hospital, Goya shows an increasing tendency to abstraction; the brushstrokes are looser and the setting in which the fire takes place is even less defined here than in the painting that the Aragonese artist made during his stay in Cádiz. The human figures appear to be of lesser importance and are scattered over the surface of the canvas. This device could have been an allusion to the lack of cohesion or solidarity between the victims of the unhappy event.

The painting in the Museum of Fine Arts in Buenos Aires must be considered in the light of Goya's interest in themes of disasters. It is likely that part of this interest came as a result of the artist having come into contact with the treatise by Edmund Burke (Dublin, 1729-Beaconsfield, 1797) on the sublime, published in 1757 (A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful). Burke stated that, the closer a representation of a disaster is to reality, the more perfect its power. It is that very realism, which the painter does not seek to avoid, which contains the work's ability to arouse in the viewer a mixture of terror and morbid curiosity.

It is possible that Goya had heard about the fire which destroyed the theatre at the Hospital of Nuestra Señora de Gracia in Zaragoza in 1778. This place, which staged all sorts of different shows, was founded in the 16th century. The takings from the performances put on at the theatre were used to pay for the upkeep of the hospital.

Bibliografía
  • L'œuvre peint de Goya. 4 vols
    Xavier Desparmet Fitz-Gerald
    p. 298, cat. 277
    1928-1950
  • Don Francisco de Goya y Lucientes
    Ramón Gómez De La Serna
    p. 69
    1942
    Poseidón
  • La pintura española moderna y contemporánea
    M. R. Larraiza
    fig. 25
    1964
  • Paintings by Goya in the Buenos Aires Museum
    The Burlington Magazine
    José Gudiol
    pp. 11-16
    CVII
    1965
  • Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    Juliet Wilson and Pierre Gassier
    p. 265, cat. 947
    1970
    Office du livre
  • Goya, 1746 – 1828. Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas, 4 vols.
    José Gudiol
    vol. I, pp. 356 y 357, cat. 614
    1970
    Polígrafa
  • L’opera pittorica completa di Goya
    Rita de Angelis
    p. 125, cat. 527
    1974
    Rizzoli
  • “Incendio en un hospital en el siglo XVIII. Análisis del acontecimiento descrito por Francisco de Goya y Lucientes”
    Índex de enfermería: información bibliográfica, investigación y humanidades
    María Teresa Miralles Sangro and Marta Durán Escribano
    pp. 276-280
    vl.18 n.4
    2009
Enlaces externos
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