Francisco de Goya

Judith and Holofernes (Judith y Holofernes)

Clasificación
Judith and Holofernes (Judith y Holofernes)
Datos Generales
Cronología
Ca. 1820 - 1823
Ubicación
The Prado National Museum. Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Dimensiones
143.5 x 81.5 cm
Técnica y soporte
Oil painting on plaster transferred to canvas
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Undisputed work
Titular
El Prado National Museum
Ficha: realización/revisión
27 Oct 2010 / 31 Jul 2017
Inventario
397 (P00764)
Historia

See Leocadia.

Análisis artístico

In accordance with the generally held belief that Saturn was located opposite Leocadia Judith was thought to be placed opposite Two Old Men on the same short wall as Saturn on the ground floor of the house known as the Quinta del Sordo. However, a new theory posed by Glendinning and based on the way the light falls on Saturn and Judith in some old photographs taken of the room suggests that their positions would be reversed, though they remain on the same wall.

The painting represents the biblical scene in which Judith cuts the head off the Assyrian general Holofernes. Goya moves away from traditional iconography, eliminating the biblical attributes usually included in depictions of this theme. The jewels and riches described in the story are not present here; rather, the painting focuses on the action. In fact, the Judith portrayed in this painting could have been a woman from Goya's own times. The artist presents the viewer with an unidentified location rather than the usual setting of Holofernes' tent. The figure of the general is barely visible, although his head can be vaguely made out in the right-hand corner of the composition. Goya focuses the viewer's attention on the figure of Judith in the moment just after she has killed her adversary, holding the murder weapon in her right hand. The light falls entirely on her figure, leaving the servant and accomplice who is with her in the darkness. This light gives volume to the figure, to her face, arm, bust, and the hand holding the knife.

Many interpretations have been made of this painting. Nordström writes that this painting seems to be intricately linked to Saturn Devouring One of His Children, since the retelling of biblical and mythological stories was a tradition that stretched back into the Renaissance. The painting could be related to the fear of the loss of power, such as that suffered by the Assyrian general. Nordström points to a sketch for the cupola of the Church of San Andrés Apostol in Madrid by an anonymous painter of the 17th century as a possible inspiration for the artist.

On the other hand, Muller associated this work with literary and dramatic works, reminding us that in Goya's times Judith was considered to be both a biblical heroine and femme fatale.

The figure emerges from a dark background thanks to a light focus that falls directly on her. The colour palette is reduced almost to a grisaille, with some light touches of vermillion on her face and elbow. It is executed in thick, strong, precise brushstrokes.

Conservación

Apart from the restoration work carried out by Martínez Cubells in 1973, the painting was restored again in 1900 by Julián Jiménez Naga, and once more in 1934.

The canvas lost some substantial sections of the original ground when it was removed from the wall of the building. Numerous areas of paint were lost which were repainted.

Exposiciones
  • Pinturas Negras en la Exposición Universal de París
    Palacio del Trocadero
    Paris
    1878
    from may 20th to November 10th 1878
  • Goya. 250 Aniversario
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    1996
    consultant editor Juan J. Luna. From March 29th to June 2nd 1996
Bibliografía
  • Goya, sa vie, son œuvre
    Charles Yriarte
    pp. 140
    1867
    Henri Plon
  • Goya, pintor de retratos, t. I
    Aureliano de Beruete Y Moret
    pp.122-127
    1916
    edición compendiada por Francisco Javier Sánchez Cantón: Madrid, Blass, 1928
  • Goya. Las Pinturas Negras
    Antonio F. Fuster
    pp. 133-134
    1963
    Goya Hispano-Inglesa de Reaseguros, D.L.
  • Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    Juliet Wilson and Pierre Gassier
    p. 328, cat. 1625
    1970
    Office du livre
  • Goya, 1746 – 1828. Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas, 4 vols.
    José Gudiol
    vol. I, p. 378, cat. 701
    1970
    Polígrafa
  • Goya
    Xavier Salas
    p. 201, cat. 587
    1974
    Carroggio S.A. de Ediciones
  • Goya's Black Paintings: Truth and Reason in Light and Liberty
    Priscilla E. Muller
    pp. 177-183
    1984
    Hispanic Society of America
  • Goya, Saturno y melancolía. Consideraciones sobre el arte de Goya
    Folke Nordström
    p.240-247
    1989
    La Balsa de la Medusa (Edición original: Estocolmo, Almqvis & Wiksell, 1962)
  • Las Pinturas negras de Goya
    Goya: Jornadas entorno al estado de la cuestión de los estudios sobre Goya
    Nigel Glendinning
    p. 44
    1993
  • Las pinturas negras
    José Manuel Arnáiz
    pp. 88-89
    1996
    Ediciones Antiquaria, S.A
  • Goya. Pinturas del Museo del Prado
    Margarita Moreno De Las Heras
    pp. 314-315
    1997
    Museo Nacional del Prado
  • Las Pinturas Negras de Goya
    Paulina Junquera
    pp. 62-63
    2003
    Scala Publishers Ltd.
Enlaces externos
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