Francisco de Goya

Of everything

Of everything
Datos Generales
Ca. 1797
The Prado National Museum. Madrid, Madrid, Spain
210 x 148 mm
Técnica y soporte
Sanguine on laid paper
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Documented work
El Prado National Museum
Ficha: realización/revisión
20 Aug 2021 / 19 Apr 2023

De todo (in red chalk, lower left-hand corner)

Watermark: [Shield with helmet, bird inside, and underneath "D.N J.PH GISBERT / ALCOY"] (lower half)


In the early 19th century the drawing belonged to the scholar and friend of Goya's Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez (1749-1829). On his death in 1829 it passed to his widow and by the second half of the 19th century it was in the Parisian collection of Paul Lefort, who sold it at public auction held on 28-29 January 1869 at the Hôtel Drouot in Paris (lot 117), acquiring it from Pedro Fernández Durán de Madrid, who bequeathed it to the Museo del Prado by testamentary disposition on 6 July 1923. Following acceptance of the donation, the drawing entered the Prado Museum by Royal Order of 31 March 1931.

Análisis artístico

On the probable advice of Goya's academic friends, this preparatory drawing for the Capriches was neither engraved nor included in the edition of the Capriches , as it could be interpreted as a direct attack on a particular person.

The main figure in the composition, with the body of an ass, human arms and the face of a sheep, is seated drawing on a table with the aid of a compass and palette, while turning his head towards three gawping admirers. In the background on the left is a bookcase full of volumes.

On the other side of the paper Goya drew the same scene in reverse, including a wig on the head of the protagonist in the form of an ass's ears. In the drawing on the reverse, entitled The Pedant, the painter added a lyre at the scholar's feet, which was not included in the drawing on the front and which could symbolise a satire on the pedants who know everything. The bookshop has been replaced by what appears to be an audience attending the lectures of this curious professor.

Both drawings could be related to Caprice 39. Even His Grandfather, which shows a donkey sitting in front of a table with a book between his hooves, and to earlier variants of the same painting such as Dream 26: The Literary Donkey and Masks of B. There are also masks of literary donkeys.

  • Boston
  • 1975
  • Europa 1789. Aufklärung, Verklärung, Verfall
    Hamburger Kunsthalle
  • Goya. La década de Los Caprichos
    organized by Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando sponsored by Fundación Central Hispano, Madrid, consultant editor Nigel Glendinnig. From October 26th 1992 to January 10th 1993
  • Ydioma universal: Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    Biblioteca Nacional
    from September 19th to December 15th 1996
  • SÁNCHEZ CANTÓN. Francisco Javier
    MadridMuseo del Prado
    n. 197
  • GASSIER, Pierre y WILSON, Juliet
    Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    ParísOffice du livre
    p. 186, cat. 630
  • GASSIER, Pierre
    Dibujos de Goya, 2 vols
    p. 171, cat. 134
  • WILSON-BAREU, Juliet
    MadridReal Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
    pp. 208-210, cat. 123
  • SANTIAGO PÁEZ, Elena y WILSON-BAREAU, Juliet (comisarias)
    Ydioma universal: Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    MadridBiblioteca Nacional, Sociedad Estatal Goya 96 y Lunwerg
    p. 160
  • MATILLA, José Manuel
    MadridMuseo Nacional del Prado
    pp. 31-49
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Enlaces externos
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