Francisco de Goya

The mourning

Clasificación
The mourning
Datos Generales
Cronología
Ca. 1824 - 1825
Dimensiones
195 x 190 mm
Técnica y soporte
Piedra litográfica, lápiz y pincel, tinta negra, papel avitelado
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Documented work
Ficha: realización/revisión
18 Feb 2011 / 24 May 2023
Inventario
225
Inscripciones

Goya (signed in the lower left-hand corner).

Historia

Citing health problems, Goya obtained permission from King Ferdinand VII to move to France in July 1824. In Bordeaux, the city where he settled, he met Cipriano Gaulon, a calligrapher by profession and lithographic printer from 1818, thanks to whom he acquired a great mastery of the new technique. It was in his workshop that he printed lithographs such as The Vitus and The Portrait of Gaulon, as well as those that make up the series "The Bulls of Bordeaux"; there are other works depicting animals, the attribution of which is doubtful and which may have been done by Rosarito Weiss.

According to Matheron, in order to execute his lithographic composition, GoyaGoya "[...] made use of the easel where he placed the stone as if it were a canvas, handling the pencils, just like the brushes, without ever cutting them, and remained standing, withdrawing and approaching every minute to judge the effects". The resulting proofs could therefore be considered true sketches and pictorial sketches. As for the technique, "it was his system to first cover the stone with a uniform grey ink and immediately remove with the scraper the parts that were to have light; here a head or figure, there a horse or bull, then using the pencil to reinforce and invigorate the shadows or to indicate the figures and give them movement".

The memory of Spain is very present in all these Bordeaux lithographs. 

Copies of this lithograph, printed at the Gaulon Litographic Establishment (Bordeaux), can be found in a various collections: National Library in Madrid, from the Carderera collection; Library of the Lázaro Galdiano Foundation, from the collection of Infant Sabastian Gabriel de Borbón y Braganza; two proofs in the Staatliche Museen in Berlin, from the Boix collection; British Museum in London; and Art Institute of Chicago, from the Berolzeimer collection.

Together with The Vitus, it would form part of an unfinished series devoted to singular and gruesome customs in Spain, perhaps intended for easy sale to the French public. 

Análisis artístico

A duel scene in which to men in shirtsleeves challenge each other fiercely. The one with his back to the viewer pluges his rapier into his opponent´s chest almost to the hilt. In the foreground, a sword and a jacket lie on the ground. One of the contestants wears braces and dark trousers, while his opponent wears light trousers and has sideburns on his face. Both cast dense shadows on the ground. In the background, behind some bushes, heads can be seen watching the challenge. 

This lithograph shows Goya's new skill in lithographic technique, thanks to his collaboration with Gaulon and the use of suitable materials. 

Exposiciones
  • Grabados y dibujos de Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    Biblioteca Nacional
    Madrid
    1946
    catalogue Elena Páez Ríos
  • Goya: zeichnungen, radierungen, lithographien
    International Tage
    Ingelheim
    1966
    exhibition displayed from May 7th to June 5 th 1966
  • The changing image: prints by Francisco de Goya
    Museum of Fine Arts
    1974
    From October to December 1974. Exhibited also at The National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, January to March 1975
  • Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional. Exposición de grabados y dibujos en el sesquicentenario de su muerte
    Biblioteca Nacional
    Madrid
    1978
    May - June 1978
  •  Grabados de Goya: colección propiedad de la Biblioteca Nacional, que se conserva en su Gabinete de
    Casa de la Amistad de Moscú
    Moscow
    1979
    exhibition displayed from January 18th to 31st 1979
  • Goya (1746-1828). Peintures-Dessins-Gravures
    Centre Cultural du Marais
    París
    1979
    consultant editors Jacqueline et Maurice Guillard
  • Goya: Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik
    Städtische Galerie im Städelschen Kunstintitut
    Frankfurt
    1981
    from February 13th to April 5th 1981
  • La litografía en Burdeos en la época de Goya
    Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza
    Zaragoza
    1983
    organized by Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. On January 1983. Celebrated also in Bordeaux, on May 1983.
  • Origen de la litografía en España. El real establecimiento litográfico
    Museo Casa de la Moneda
    Madrid
    1991
    From 31 October to 15 December 1991.
  • Ydioma universal: Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    Biblioteca Nacional
    Madrid
    1996
    from September 19th to December 15th 1996
  • Goya grabador
    Museo del Grabado Español Contemporáneo
    Marbella
    1996
    from March 8th to May 5th 1996
  • Francisco Goya. Sein leben im spiegel der graphik. Fuendetodos 1746-1828 Bordeaux. 1746-1996
    Galerie Kornfeld
    Bern
    1996
    from November 21st 1996 to January 1997
  • Agen
    2019
Bibliografía
  • HARRIS, Tomás
    Goya engravings and lithographs, vol. I y II.
    OxfordBruno Cassirer
    1964
    p. 423, cat. 281
  • GASSIER, Pierre y WILSON, Juliet
    Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    ParísOffice du livre
    1970
    p. 363, cat. 1702
  • HOFMANN, Werner (ed.)
    Goya, Das Zeitalter de Revolutionen. 1789-1830
    HamburgPrestel-Verlag Münche und Hamburger Kunsthalle
    1980
    p. 306, cat. 275
  • VEGA, Jesusa
    Origen de la litografía en España. El real establecimiento litográfico
    MadridFabrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre
    1990
    pp. 362-363, cat. 32
  • SANTIAGO, Elena M. (coordinadora)
    Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional
    MadridMinisterio de Educación y Cultura, Biblioteca Nacional
    1996
    p. 259, cat.407
  • CARRETE PARRONDO, Juan
    Goya. Estampas. Grabado y litografía
    BarcelonaElecta ediciones
    2007
    pp. 40-44, 340 y 374, núm. 276
  • WILSON BAREAU, Juliet
    Goya. In the Norton Simon Museum
    PasadenaNorton Simon Museum
    2016
    p. 234
  • MOTTIN, Bruno, EFEDAQUE, Adrien and WILSON-BAREU, Juliet
    AgenSnoeck
    2019
    p. 169
Enlaces externos
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