Francisco de Goya

Datos Generales
Cronología
1777
Ubicación
The Prado National Museum. Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Dimensiones
275 x 414 cm
Técnica y soporte
Oil on canvas
Reconocimiento de la autoría de Goya
Documented work
Titular
El Prado National Museum
Ficha: realización/revisión
17 Nov 2009 / 08 Jun 2015
Inventario
213 (P00770)
Historia

This work forms part of the series of ten cartoons of country themes for tapestries designed to decorate the dining hall of the Prince and Princess of Asturias in the palace of El Pardo. Along with this cartoon, on 12 August 1777 Goya delivered three more belonging to the series: Maja and Cloaked Men, The Parasol and The Drinker. The artist must have made them between 3 March, the date on which he delivered the first cartoon, Dance on the Banks of the Manzanares, and 12 August, the delivery date of these cartoons. It seems an unusually long amount of time to complete four cartoons and the reason for this delay was that Goya fell ill during this time, which we know thanks to his correspondence with Martín Zapater.

Around 1856 or 1857, this cartoon was moved from the Royal Tapestry Factory of Santa Bárbara to the Royal Palace in Madrid. In 1870, it was taken to the Prado Museum under orders given on 18 January and 9 February.

Análisis artístico

This piece has the largest dimensions of the whole series, although it was cut down lengthways by around 50 cm, measuring 469 cm when Goya described it in the invoice. As such, we can assume that this was the main scene, though there exists no description in any known document of the how the tapestries were arranged within the dining room.

The scene depicts the disturbance caused by a card game at a venta, or tavern, a place frequented by travellers and muleteers, on the outskirts of Madrid (the location has been identified by Sambricio as the Venta del Espíritu Santo, in today's neighbourhood of Las Ventas). Its composition has a pronounced horizontal and theatrical character, recalling the sainetes, or short comical plays, of the period, made popular largely thanks to the work of Ramón de la Cruz. The landscape serves as backdrop in front of which are placed, at different heights, four groups of people: the innkeeper on the right, the group of five men fighting in the centre, two more struggling on the ground to their left, and another getting ready to hurl a stone, closing off the "scene" on the left-hand side. Poking out of the circular window in the gable is a sign that reads "VENTA NUEBA", or "NEW TAVERN".

The exaggerated poses and expressions of the figures evoke actors in a theatrical performance. Also remarkable are the clothes of the figures, inspired by the interest that the enlightened population of the period showed in the attire and different types of people of Spain, according to Tomlinson. For example, even the character who has his back turned to the viewer can still be easily identified as a native of Murcia thanks to his short trousers and sandals.

Tomlinson gives the series of cartoons a moralistic character, and believes that Goya may have taken his inspiration from the theme of the seven deadly sins, represented in a work by Hieronymus Bosch housed in the palace of El Escorial and in a series of Flemish tapestries from the 16th century that formed part of the royal collection and to which Goya would have had access. The compositional similarities with these other works may be trivial but are undeniable. According to this hypothesis, this particular cartoon would be identified with the sin of wrath.

Exposiciones
  • Goya. 250 Aniversario
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    1996
    consultant editor Juan J. Luna. From March 29th to June 2nd 1996
  • Goya en Madrid. Cartones para tapices 1775-1794
    Museo Nacional del Prado
    Madrid
    2014
Bibliografía
  • Tapices de Goya
    Valentín de Sambricio
    pp. 64, 97-98, 205, cat. 12 y láms. 55-5
    1946
    Patrimonio Nacional
  • L'œuvre peint de Goya. 4 vols
    Xavier Desparmet Fitz-Gerald
    vol. I, p. 62, cat. 3
    1928-1950
  • Vie et ouvre de Francisco de Goya
    Juliet Wilson and Pierre Gassier
    pp. 75, 85, cat. 76
    1970
    Office du livre
  • Goya, 1746 – 1828. Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas, 4 vols.
    José Gudiol
    vol. 1, pp. 41, 245, cat. 65
    1970
    Polígrafa
  • L’opera pittorica completa di Goya
    Rita de Angelis
    p. 94
    1974
    Rizzoli
  • Francisco de Goya, 4 vols.
    José Camón Aznar
    vol. I, p. 86 y p. 113 (il.)
    1980-1982
    Caja de Ahorros de Zaragoza, Aragón y Rioja
  • Imagen de Goya
    Valeriano Bozal
    pp. 66-67, 70
    1983
    Lumen
  • Francisco de Goya, cartones y tapices
    José Manuel Arnáiz
    pp. 75-76, 152, 188, 251, cat. 16C
    1987
    Espasa Calpe
    Col. Espasa Arte
  • Francisco de Goya. Los cartones para tapices y los comienzos de su carrera en la corte de Madrid
    Janis A. Tomlinson
    pp. 61-65, 89 y p. 62 (il.)
    1987
    Cátedra
    Col. Ensayos de Arte Cátedra
  • Goya. 250 Aniversario
    Juan J. (comisario) Luna
    pp. 288-290, cat. 9 y pp. 74, 75 (il.)
    1996
    Museo del Prado
  • Salas del Palacio Real de El Pardo para las que se tejieron tapices sobre cartones de Francisco de Goya: identificación de las habitaciones y ajuste de las obras de Goya en los alzados de las paredes
    in HERRERO CARRETERO, Concha (curator, Tapices y cartones de Goya (catalogue of the exhibition organizated at the Palacio Real de Madrid, from may to june 1996)
    José Luis Sancho
    p. 167 (il.)
    1996
    Patrimonio Nacional, Goya 96, Lunwerg
  • Goya en Madrid. Cartones para tapices 1775-1794
    p. 121
    2014
    Museo Nacional del Prado
Enlaces externos
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